Thursday, May 21, 2020

Physician-Assisted Suicide and Psychology Essay example

There has been very little literature presented on Physician Assistant Suicide and its relationship particularly to psychology, PAS is my opinion is in fact a psychological issue. Psychology by definition is a discipline that studies both the human mind and behavior and seeks to understand and provide explanation pertaining to thought, emotion, and behavior (Cherry, 2011). Applications of psychology can range from mental health, self- health, and a myriad of areas that can affect health and daily life (Cherry, 2011). Although many people are familiar with the term â€Å"physician-assisted suicide,† very few however, actually know what is meant by the term. The term â€Å"physician-assisted suicide† is one that has been commonly used among the†¦show more content†¦The argument by those who are against using the term suicide believe that in contrast to those patients with impaired judgment, patients who are terminally ill and request medication under the act possess the ability to make a reasonable, autonomous decision to terminate their lives (Chin, Hedberg, Higginson, Fleming, 1999). Therefore a person’s mental capacity or judgment has not been affected and they are deemed suitable to make this decision (Chin, Hedberg, Higginson, Fleming, 1999). Proving that a person is capable of making this decision on their own without any outside help is most critical part of this whole entire process (Chin, Hedberg, Higginson, Fleming, 1999). . Speaking in general, this could be the main difference between a person that is considered to be suicidal and treated as if their ability to make decisions has been compromised (Starks, 2009). This result in receiving aid from healthcare workers called to intervene and give life-sustaining treatment over the objection of the patient (Starks, 2009). The Oregon Death with Dignity Act of October 27, 1997, was the legalization of physician-assisted suicide in the state of Oregon (Hendin, 1998). The Act permits terminally ill residents of the state the right to receiveShow MoreRelatedPhysician Assisted Suicide : Should It Be Legal Or Banned Essay768 Words   |  4 Pages Physician-Assisted Suicide: should it be legal or banned According to s. 241 (b) of the Criminal Code, R.S.C. 1985, it is a crime in Canada to assist a person to end his own life. People who are grievously and irremediably ill can not seek physician-assisted suicide in dying and may be condemned to a life of intolerable suffering. This bill makes the patients lose the right of independent choice and brings more pain to their families. It is no doubt that the legalization of physician-assisted deathRead MoreSince The Fifteen Century, Society Has Viewed Suicide Or1178 Words   |  5 PagesSince the fifteen century, society has viewed suicide or intentional death as immoral. It was not until the twentieth century that these â€Å"immoral† attitudes were challenged. As of 2016, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and Colombia have unambiguously legalized direct assisted dying. Other areas, having to undergo a process of either a judicial or legislative decision, include Canada, Japan, and Germany. Currently in the United States, foll owing the same process of a judicial or legislative processesRead MoreAssisted Suicide Should Be Managed1273 Words   |  6 PagesAssisted Suicide Brittany Maynard was twenty-nine years old, she had been married for a year when she was diagnosed with brain cancer. Doctors gave her a prognosis of six months to live. After that, Brittany and her family decided to move to Oregon to take advantage of the Death with Dignity Act. On November 1, 2014, Maynard decided to end her life. Assisted suicide is a controversial topic that has been debated for many years. In a few countries, this procedure has already been legalized. ThereRead MorePhysician Assisted Suicide : A Controversial Subject1692 Words   |  7 PagesPhysician-assisted suicide is a controversial subject all around the world. Although it is legal in some countries and states, such as the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Oregon, Montana, Washington, and Vermont it is not yet legal in most (Finlay, 2011). People travel from all around the world to these locations to receive information. Physician-assisted suicide is when terminally ill and mentally capable patients perform the final act themselves after being provided with the required meansRead MoreThe Debate Surrounding Physician-Assisted Suicide Essay1673 Words   |  7 PagesPhysician-assisted suicide is the practice in which a doctor prescribes a terminally ill patient with a lethal medication as a form of active, voluntary euthanasia. Th ese patients, rather than suffer slowly and painfully, often request this procedure as a means of experiencing a more â€Å"dignified† death. The debate surrounding this issue is a heated one, especially among the general public whose attitudes are deeply influenced by the level of patient pain and discomfort (Frileux et al. 334). At theRead MorePhysician-Assisted Suicide - an Utilitarian Perspective Essay example1476 Words   |  6 PagesPhysician-assisted suicide is â€Å"the voluntary termination of ones own life by administration of a lethal substance with the direct or indirect assistance of a physician. Physician-assisted suicide is the practice of providing a competent patient with a prescription for medication for the patient to use with the primary intention of ending his or her own life† (MedicineNet.com, 2004). Many times this ethical issue arises when a terminally-ill patient with and incurable illness, whom is given littleRead MoreThe Treatment Of Physic ian Assisted Suicide1025 Words   |  5 Pagesprecious hour will give the loved ones a time to say goodbye just before they die with dignity in physician assisted suicide. Terminally ill patients have the right to end their own lives using physician assisted suicide (PAS) without repercussions of laws and people with opposing opinions. According to an article from CNN.com, there are currently five states in the U.S. where physician-assisted suicide is currently legal. In order to be eligible legally for PAS the patient must have six months orRead MoreBasic Goals Of Psychology And Explain The Terms1068 Words   |  5 Pages4 basic goals of psychology and explain the terms; The four key goals of psychology are: 1: Describe. To gain a better perspective on what is normal and abnormal in human behavior their first goal is to observe and describe behaviors. To learn everything they can about the patient, or study, like their thought process, patterns, emotions and different behavior. 2: Explain: Explaining what the studies showed as to why those processes occurred. Explain is also the first step for psychologist toRead MoreEssay on Mental Health and Assisted Suicide1532 Words   |  7 PagesMental Health and Euthanasia/Assisted Suicide      Ã‚  Ã‚   It is obvious to the TV viewer that under the banners of compassion and autonomy, some are calling for legal recognition of a right to suicide and societal acceptance of physician-assisted suicide. Suicide proponents evoke the image of someone facing unendurable suffering who calmly and rationally decides death is better than life in such a state. They argue that society should respect and defer to the freedom of choice such people exerciseRead MoreWho Is The Physician Assisted Suicide?1357 Words   |  6 Pagesstill want to partake in physician assisted suicide? The issue of wanting to commit suicide is not so much an issue of physical health but more so an issue of mental and spiritual health. In her paper, Foley refers to a study which says â€Å"depressed patients with cancer said they would view positively those physicians who acknowledged their willingness to assist in suicide. In contrast, patients with cancer who were suffering from pain would be suspicious of such physicians†(121). In other words, the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Iliad by Homer Book VI - 604 Words

The Iliad: Book VI is about the continued war for Troy but Homer focuses a lot of the book on Hector, Prince of Troy. The Achaeans were overwhelming the Trojans so they were forced back into their city. The Trojans were weakened so the Achaeans took full advantage and slaughtered as many as they could. However, the Trojans anticipated this weakness and Hector asked his mother to pray to Athena for the army. Meanwhile Paris, Hector’s brother, had withdrawn from battle because of the grief he caused. But his soon to be wife Helen and Hector convince him to return to battle. Just before they head into battle Hector pays a visit to his wife and child to say goodbye for maybe the last time. His wife is convinced that he is near his death and mourns. Hector then meets Paris on the way to the city gate and they prepare to fight. Homer concentrates on Hector throughout the chapter and makes comments about how brave and courageous he was. He also mentions that he is a great commander and leader of the Trojan army. In addition, Hector knew the reason behind the invasion which was Paris stealing Menelaus’ wife, Helen. This gives Agamemnon an excuse to attack Troy. Both Hector and his wife know that he is soon to meet his death, it’s inescapable. However, even though it is not his fight, he still feels compelled to go to war with his country and search for some vague glory. Hector seems to be very heroic. Moreover, Homer describes Hector as an immense warrior almost god-like. But inShow MoreRelatedComparing The Iliad And The Odyssey905 Words   |  4 PagesThis short essay will identify five traditional epic characteristics that are evident in both the Iliad and the Odyssey. The first epic characteristic evident in both epics is catalogs and genealogies. For instance, Book VIII of the Odyssey features a list of participants in the game (115-125) and the Iliad Book II features a catalog of ships (484-759). Secondly, both epics start in media res. The Odyssey starts ten years after the Trojan War and the Illiad starts nine years after the start of theRead MoreHonor Homer And Heartache : The Point Of The Iliad1166 Words   |  5 PagesHonor Homer and Heartache The point of The Iliad is personal honor. Honor was prevalent throughout the poem. The honor of every person in Homeric culture was important. Homer demonstrated some lack of honor in some of the main characters. Therefore, Homer wants to infuse pride, emotions, and values into the main characters who are viewed as heroes that the society looks up to. With these three solutions it would help out the honor culture. As illustrated in book VI, Homer didn’t want readers to justRead MoreAssess the Extent to Which Archaeological Evidence Uncovered by Heinrich Schliemann Supports Homer’s Existence of Troy.1367 Words   |  6 PagesHomer’s Iliad is a powerful, beautiful, and awe-inspiring work of ancient Greece. An epic poem and a classic of world literature, the Iliad recounts portions of the war between Greece and the city-state of Troy. Most entrancing are his vivid wonderful descriptions of the Great City of Troy and illustrious recounts of the events that took place on this ancient site. It is not a surprise that the 19th century German archaeologist or arguably treasure hunter, Heinrich Schliemann was spellbound toRead MoreAn Essay on the Illiad868 Words   |  4 Pagesa ‘student of his culture’ and thus both The Iliad and The Odyssey are directed sources of their own period. Select any one episode or scene from either of the poems as one that you feel is mos t memorable. What does it tell about Homeric culture? A writer is a reflection of his age. A work of art is considered a mirror of the customs, culture, and concepts of the age to which it belongs. Homer’s writings are a true representation of this. His Iliad and Odyssey both reflect the old Greek cultureRead MoreIliad - Self image1193 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿The Iliad Essay Prompt 1. Complete one take home essay. Provide textual evidence, specific lines and incidents from The Iliad that proves your thesis. You may also draw from The Odyssey. Use in text parenthetical documentation according to MLA standards. The style guide that many colleges use is DianaHacker.com. We will use this style guide for both MLA format and grammar and mechanics. If you have any questions about MLA format, refer to DianaHacker.com. This paper needs to read asRead MoreTrojan War and Iliad1134 Words   |  5 Pages * Homer is most frequently said to be born in the  Ionian  region of  Asia Minor, at  Smyrna, or on the island of  Chios, dying on the  Cycladic  island of  Ios. A connection with Smyrna seems to be alluded to in a legend that his original name wasMelesigenes  (born of  Meles, a river which flowed by that city), with his mother the nymph Kretheis. Internal evidence from the poems gives evidence of familiarity with the topography and place-names of this area of  Asia Minor, for example, Homer refers toRead More Essay on Hector as the Ideal Homeric Man of Homers Iliad1358 Words   |  6 PagesHector as the Ideal Homeric Man of Homers Iliad        Ã‚  Ã‚   Homers Iliad enthralls readers with its’ valiant heroes who fight for the glory of Greece. The Iliad, however, is not just a story of war; it is also a story of individuals. Through the characters words and actions, Homer paints portraits of petulant Achilles and vain Agamemnon, doomed Paris and Helen, loyal Patroclus, tragic Priam, versatile Odysseus, and the whole cast of Gods. Ironically, the most complete character in the epic isRead MoreEssay about Heroic Code in the Iliad and the Odyssey979 Words   |  4 PagesHeroic Code in the Iliad and the Odyssey In Websters Dictionary, a hero is defined as a person noted for courageous acts or nobility of purpose, especially if this individual has risked or sacrificed his life. In the Iliad and the Odyssey, the code which administers the conduct of the Homeric heroes is a straightforward idea. The aim of every hero is to achieve honor. Throughout the Iliad and the Odyssey, different characters take on the role of a hero. Honor is essential to the HomericRead MoreTying Homers Iliad to Virgils Aeneid Through the Theme of Warfare1487 Words   |  6 PagesHomers Iliad to Virgils Aeneid. However, the way warfare is treated in the two epics is different. This can be attributed to many factors including the time between the composition of the pieces, the fact that pieces were written by different authors, and the fact that the pieces were written in different places. We can use these pieces to get a view of what the society that produced them thought about war and how the view of war chang ed as time went on in the ancient world. The Iliad is a poemRead MoreThe Iliad Or The Poem Of Force1472 Words   |  6 PagesIn her essay, The Iliad or The Poem of Force, Simone Weil argues, â€Å"The true hero, the true subject matter, the center of the Iliad, is force,† (152). â€Å"Force† is defined as, â€Å"that x that turns anybody who is subjected to it/ into a thing,† (153). Weil perceives force as an active entity that is capable of profound, negative, influences on the lives it touches (153). For a hero, force replaces his rational sensibilities by an uncontrollable urge to slaughter his opponent in an animalistic fashion,

Nsd 225 Study Guide Free Essays

string(54) " Common food allergies are nuts, soy, milk, and eggs\." Review for test #3 1. Calcium is not well absorbedless that 30% 2. A major mineral means you need more of it. We will write a custom essay sample on Nsd 225 Study Guide or any similar topic only for you Order Now 3. The six major minerals are calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chlorine. The rest are trace minerals, which are not less important, but you just need them in less amounts. 4. Minerals are 0 calories. 5. The best source of iron is beef, liver, or meat. 6. The best source of zinc is beef, liver, or meat. 7. Vitamin C will help you absorb iron twice as much (double the absorption). 8. Sea salt, they say, contains iodide, but it is silly to pay more and get nothing extra for it. Sea salt is not better than table saltiodine leaves as a gas (sublimes from solid to gas form). 9. We need iodide to make thyroid hormone, which is important because it influences our overall metabolism. Also, if you don’t have enough iron, you will be fatigued, and children that are deficient won’t grow. Finally, you need it to prevent goiter, an enlargement of the thyroid (around the Great Lakes and west = the goiter belts). 10. The major function of zinc: for many enzymes systems to work, for sexual maturation and growth, for wound healing, for protein metabolism and immune system. 1. Fluoride deficiency will result in dental caries (holes in teeth). 12. There is 500 mg of calcium carbonate in Tums, but since calcium carbonate is only composed of 40% calcium, there is 200 mg of pure calcium in Tums. 13. Iron is VERY POORLY absorbed; only 5-10% of iron is absorbed by normal adults. 14. The best source of potassium is potatoes. 15. If you don’t have enough potas sium, it may result in cardiac arrest or an irregular heartbeat (death) [also caused by too much]. 16. The major function of magnesium that it is needed as part of bones and part of muscle; also, it is an activator of more than 300 enzymes, and it’s necessary to maintain electrical potential of nerve and muscle and for transmission of never impulses. 17. The major function of chromium is that it acts as a cofactor for insulin, which is needed for maintaining normal glucose metabolism (chromium in humans declines with age). 18. Phosphorus is present in all foods especially milk and milk products and liver and other animal-food protein sources. About half the phosphorus in the USA diet comes from milk, meat, poultry, and fish. 9. The main sodium food source is table salt. Only 10% of salt intake comes from natural content of foods, 15% is from salt added during cooking and at table, and 75% from salt added during processing and manufacturing. 20. To decrease high blood pressure, lose weight. Also, eating salt doesn’t help for high blood pressure. 21. Folate RDA is over twi ce non-pregnant RDA (for increased blood supply and for growth of baby) so folate supplements are often prescribed. Also, need zinc for growth, B-12 for red blood cells, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium for bones. In addition, iron supplements during pregnancy and after delivery are recommended (baby should have enough to last 3-6 months**); fluoride is needed for teeth to begin in the 5th month of pregnancy. Nutrients to double during pregnancyfolate and probably iron. 22. You can NOT make up nutrients from a skipped breakfast. 23. Teenagers need to snack to get nutrients. 24. Adolescents aren’t well fed because they are too busy, eat out with their friends, skip breakfast, poor choice of snacks, avoid milk because they falsely think it is fattening, fear of becoming fat, use of fad diets especially by girls, and girls don’t get enough milk,. 5. Vegetables should be added first to an infant’s diet (after about 4-6 months). 26. Nutrition advice for anorexia patients included increasing caloric intake slowly (start at 800-1200 kcal), balanced diet, vitamin/mineral supplements, small frequent meals, use liquid supplements if necessary, and reduce caffeine. Also, don’t overload food, and persuade them they are thin enough. 27. Do not drink alcohol during pregnancy because even one binge may increase the risk of fetal alcohol syndrome (brain damage and physical retardation in infants). 28. The biggest advantage of breast milk during pregnancy is its immune factors. 9. Parents shouldn’t tell children to clean their plates. 30. How do you encourage children to try new foods? 31. In order to encourage a child to eat, be positive, when they are finished take their plate (they will snack later), don’t tell them there are people starving, don’t give rewards for eating. 32. Older folks who have baby aspirin every day bleed more in the gut (gastrointestinal bleeding), so they need more iron. 33. As you age, BMR decreases, you need less food and more exercise, your appetite decreases, and usually you don’t get enough nutrients. 34. The primary function of water is as a solvent; it transports nutrients to cells and removes waste. Also, it lubricates joints, food in the mouth, and helps lubricate food as it moves down the digestive tracts. Water is needed in the chemical reactions of digestion and must be available for digestion to occur. Water helps regulate body temperature by secreting sweat and is a structural component of the body (it is necessary to retain the shape of cells and tissues). 35. Complex carbs are: bread, cereal, pasta, and vegetables. 36. Thirst is not an adequate guide for infants, those who are sick, and athletes. 7. 50-75% of body weight is water. 38. Hyperactivity in children is caused by caffeine, not sugar. 39. There is NO nutrient herbal preparation that will cure cancer. 40. The best advice to prevent cancer is to eat a variety of foods, get all nutrients, and help prevent too much harmful junk getting into you. 41. RDA for calcium for adults 51 and older is 1200 mg. 42. There are 300 mg of calcium in a glass of milk (it doesn’t matter whether it is skim, whole, 1%, or 2%). 43. Common food allergies are nuts, soy, milk, and eggs. You read "Nsd 225 Study Guide" in category "Essay examples" 44. When under stress, the hormone cortisol produces fat. 45. A critical period during pregnancy defines a time early in pregnancy when an event happens and will never happen again. It is a certain time during development in which the event occurs that will have irreversible effects on later developmental stages (it is usually a period of cell division). 46. Colostrum contains immune factors and anti-infection that will help a baby. 47. The WIC program is a nutritional education component that takes care of people who can’t take care of themselves. 48. The major function of phosphorusit has more functions that any other mineral. 49. Advantages of infant formula = father can feed. 0. Your peak bone mass is from 25-30 years old. 51. 5 reasons girls get osteoporosis: girls live longer, guys drink more milk, girls get pregnant and breastfeed, girls are smaller (have smaller bones). 1. Iron is NOT a major mineral. 2. Females need more iron—it is almost impossible for females to eat a diet providing the RDA for iron and stay within 2000 kcal. 3. Iron deficiency anemia may be the most prevalent deficiency disease in humans. 4. PICA = eating non-food items (laundry starch, clay, ice cubes), may denote low iron intake 5. OJ would help you absorb more iron from your diet (double the absorption). . Iodide toxicity also results in goiter. 7. Copper deficiency hardly ever happens. 8. Fluoride is not essential, but is essential for teeth. 9. Chromium deficiency results in impaired glucose tolerance. 10. Sodium has a small role in high blood pressure. 11. Monosodiumglutamate (MSG) adds sodium big time. 12. The major function of iron is that it is a constituent of hemoglobin in red blood cells and myoglobin in muscle. Also, iron is essential in transportation of oxygen from lungs to tissues and it’s needed for oxidation-reduction reactions. 13. Minerals are essential, but do not provide energy (no calories). Many are needed to make body structures such as bones, needed as activators for enzyme systems, and they are poorly absorbed and can definitely be harmful if taken in excess. 14. 99% of calcium is in the bone with 1% in body fluids. 15. Dairy council said calcium may have an effect on weight loss. 16. Phyates acid in seeds, nuts, and grain decrease calcium absorption. 17. Females do not have enough calcium! 18. You MUST get enough calcium from childhood to age 25. 19. Calcium is enriched in some sources such as OJ and bread. 20. Most people don’t know what’s in the supplements they take. 1. 10 million Americans over 50 have osteoporosis, 1. 5 million have a bone fracture, 1 in 5 who have a hip fracture die. Women lose 6 inches from osteoporosis. 22. Phosphorus in excess in the diet probably does not negatively affect calcium absorption. The problem is that high carbonated beverages/soda take the place of milk intake. 23. The FDA cited over 18 manufacturers of Coral Calc ium for making false claims that the supplement is a cure-allthe U. S. Marshalls seized $26 million worth. 24. Phosphorus is an essential component of bone mineral, where it occurs in the Ca:P of 2:1. About 85% of the phosphorus in the adult body is found in bone. Phosphorus is absorbed very well by the small intestine as free phosphate. 25. Availability of phosphorus in grains, especially bran, is doubtful because of phytates in grain which will bind with phosphorus. 26. 4 functions of calcium: bone formation, response to nerves, blood clotting, normal rhythm of heartbeat. 27. Functions of phosphorus (more functions than any other mineral): absorption of glucose, transport of fatty acids, buffering system. 28. Phosphorus is very well absorbed70% 29. Functions of magnesium: bones, muscle, enzyme activator, electrical impulse. 30. Americans age 15-24 have a HIGHER death rate than 20 years ago, not nutrition related but due to violent death and injury, alcohol and drug abuse, unwanted pregnancies, STDs. 31. By 18 months, the brain growth is 90% complete and by 10 years, 95% complete, so there is no real adolescent spurt in head circumference. 32. The two major complications related to teenage pregnancy are low birth weight infants (LBW) and pre-eclampsia, which is toxemia of pregnancy characterized by hbp, albuminuria, edema of feet and legs. 33. Over 90% of adolescents snack. 34. There’s NO scientific evidence that foods such as chocolate, soft drinks, or peanut butter cause acne. 35. Peer pressure influences eating behavior. 36. Eating disorders increase among college-aged females and ballet dancers because they want to be in control. 37. Eating disorders should not be treated by amateurs—you need a team of health professionals: psychiatrist, dietitian, physician. 38. No particular nutrient of type of food can retard the aging process. 39. Buillion is clear soup—no nutritional value. 40. Stories of unusual longevity in other countries were found to be untrue. 1. Lactose intolerance = eat cheese, yogurt, or lactaid milk. 42. The elderly need to either increase calories or decrease calories, depending upon whether they are skinny or fat. 43. As you age, basal metabolic rate decreases each decade after maturity (you need less calories to stay alive, need to move more). 44. No RDA for 100 year olds, only fo r 70 and under. 45. Dehydration is the worst thing for you because you can die from it, especially athletes. 46. Infant birthweight is the single most important indicator of the infant’s future health status. A low birthweight (LBW) baby is defined as weighing less than 5. 5 lbs. 47. Risk factors for pregnancy include heavy smoking, alcohol abuse, age 15 or under, among others. 48. You need . 4 mg of folic acid/day (pregnancy). 49. Effects of nutrient deficiencies during pregnancy include: calories (low infant birthweight), vitamin D (LBW), folate (miscarriage and neural tube defect—brain and spinal cord defects) 50. During pregnancy, women should be under the care of a health professional. 51. One of the smallest increases recommended is for energy. Pregnancy requires only 300 extra kcal per day during the 2md and 3rd trimesters. 52. During pregnancy, women should select foods of high nutrient density. 53. Weight gain should be in second half of pregnancy. 54. 25-30 lbs. = total weight gain for pregnant women. 55. Practices to avoid during pregnancy: limit caffeine, stop smoking, do not take any prescribed medications, do not use street drugs, do not diet, do not drink alcohol. 56. Advantages of breast feeding: nutritionally superior to any alternative, contains a variety of anti-infectious factors and immune cells, mother’s uterus shrinks faster. 57. Colostrum: a yellow milk-like secretion from the breast, rich in protective factors that comes into the breast before milk is ready for secretion. It starts in first day or so—may be present for up to 2 weeks. 58. The infant doubles his/her birth weight in the first 3 to 4 months; triples before year one. 59. For the first four months, 1/3 of the calories are needed for growth. During 4-12 months, the baby needs 10% or less for growth and the rest for activity. 60. Start new foods one at a time so that allergies can be detected. Rice cereal is usually started first mixed with formula to make it very dilute. 1. Never feed honey to an infant since honey may contain botulina spores. 62. Don’t feed baby skim milkbabies need calories and the fat for growth. 63. Age infants should start having table food = 1 year. 64. Reducing the risk of cancer = eat cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cabbage, kale, turnips, brussel sprouts). 65. Red wine MIGHT help cancer (not sure). 66. Exe rcise when you are feeling stressedprevent cortisol from building up body fat. 67. Men eat less during stress and women eat more. 68. Mild depression or chronic stress harms immunity. 69. There is a link between stress and the urge to eat. 70. Over 75-90% of all doctor’s office visits are for stress-related ailments and complaints. 71. Water is the most important nutrient. 72. You can live 30 days without food, but only 3 days without water (except in the desertless). 73. The average adult’s body weight is from 50-60% water, most controlled by hormones. 74. There’s no RDA for water. Sources of water include most beverages except those containing alcohol and caffeine; fruits and vegetables are 75% to 96% or more water, bread is 36% water, beef is 72% water. 5. Much water is lost through the skin, which cools the skin by evaporation. 76. Weight loss of over 20% by water leads to death. 77. Water intoxication is rarely seen in healthy people. 78. High altitude = low oxygenneed more water. 79. There is low chlorine in bottled water. 80. Football players in summer practice may lose 6-8% of body weight by water. 81. Drinks with more than 10% sugar wonâ €™t get into the body as fast (Gatorade has about 10% sugar). 82. You lose water through breathing out, sweating, and through excretions. How to cite Nsd 225 Study Guide, Essay examples Nsd 225 Study Guide Free Essays string(54) " Common food allergies are nuts, soy, milk, and eggs\." Review for test #3 1. Calcium is not well absorbedless that 30% 2. A major mineral means you need more of it. We will write a custom essay sample on Nsd 225 Study Guide or any similar topic only for you Order Now 3. The six major minerals are calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chlorine. The rest are trace minerals, which are not less important, but you just need them in less amounts. 4. Minerals are 0 calories. 5. The best source of iron is beef, liver, or meat. 6. The best source of zinc is beef, liver, or meat. 7. Vitamin C will help you absorb iron twice as much (double the absorption). 8. Sea salt, they say, contains iodide, but it is silly to pay more and get nothing extra for it. Sea salt is not better than table saltiodine leaves as a gas (sublimes from solid to gas form). 9. We need iodide to make thyroid hormone, which is important because it influences our overall metabolism. Also, if you don’t have enough iron, you will be fatigued, and children that are deficient won’t grow. Finally, you need it to prevent goiter, an enlargement of the thyroid (around the Great Lakes and west = the goiter belts). 10. The major function of zinc: for many enzymes systems to work, for sexual maturation and growth, for wound healing, for protein metabolism and immune system. 1. Fluoride deficiency will result in dental caries (holes in teeth). 12. There is 500 mg of calcium carbonate in Tums, but since calcium carbonate is only composed of 40% calcium, there is 200 mg of pure calcium in Tums. 13. Iron is VERY POORLY absorbed; only 5-10% of iron is absorbed by normal adults. 14. The best source of potassium is potatoes. 15. If you don’t have enough potas sium, it may result in cardiac arrest or an irregular heartbeat (death) [also caused by too much]. 16. The major function of magnesium that it is needed as part of bones and part of muscle; also, it is an activator of more than 300 enzymes, and it’s necessary to maintain electrical potential of nerve and muscle and for transmission of never impulses. 17. The major function of chromium is that it acts as a cofactor for insulin, which is needed for maintaining normal glucose metabolism (chromium in humans declines with age). 18. Phosphorus is present in all foods especially milk and milk products and liver and other animal-food protein sources. About half the phosphorus in the USA diet comes from milk, meat, poultry, and fish. 9. The main sodium food source is table salt. Only 10% of salt intake comes from natural content of foods, 15% is from salt added during cooking and at table, and 75% from salt added during processing and manufacturing. 20. To decrease high blood pressure, lose weight. Also, eating salt doesn’t help for high blood pressure. 21. Folate RDA is over twi ce non-pregnant RDA (for increased blood supply and for growth of baby) so folate supplements are often prescribed. Also, need zinc for growth, B-12 for red blood cells, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium for bones. In addition, iron supplements during pregnancy and after delivery are recommended (baby should have enough to last 3-6 months**); fluoride is needed for teeth to begin in the 5th month of pregnancy. Nutrients to double during pregnancyfolate and probably iron. 22. You can NOT make up nutrients from a skipped breakfast. 23. Teenagers need to snack to get nutrients. 24. Adolescents aren’t well fed because they are too busy, eat out with their friends, skip breakfast, poor choice of snacks, avoid milk because they falsely think it is fattening, fear of becoming fat, use of fad diets especially by girls, and girls don’t get enough milk,. 5. Vegetables should be added first to an infant’s diet (after about 4-6 months). 26. Nutrition advice for anorexia patients included increasing caloric intake slowly (start at 800-1200 kcal), balanced diet, vitamin/mineral supplements, small frequent meals, use liquid supplements if necessary, and reduce caffeine. Also, don’t overload food, and persuade them they are thin enough. 27. Do not drink alcohol during pregnancy because even one binge may increase the risk of fetal alcohol syndrome (brain damage and physical retardation in infants). 28. The biggest advantage of breast milk during pregnancy is its immune factors. 9. Parents shouldn’t tell children to clean their plates. 30. How do you encourage children to try new foods? 31. In order to encourage a child to eat, be positive, when they are finished take their plate (they will snack later), don’t tell them there are people starving, don’t give rewards for eating. 32. Older folks who have baby aspirin every day bleed more in the gut (gastrointestinal bleeding), so they need more iron. 33. As you age, BMR decreases, you need less food and more exercise, your appetite decreases, and usually you don’t get enough nutrients. 34. The primary function of water is as a solvent; it transports nutrients to cells and removes waste. Also, it lubricates joints, food in the mouth, and helps lubricate food as it moves down the digestive tracts. Water is needed in the chemical reactions of digestion and must be available for digestion to occur. Water helps regulate body temperature by secreting sweat and is a structural component of the body (it is necessary to retain the shape of cells and tissues). 35. Complex carbs are: bread, cereal, pasta, and vegetables. 36. Thirst is not an adequate guide for infants, those who are sick, and athletes. 7. 50-75% of body weight is water. 38. Hyperactivity in children is caused by caffeine, not sugar. 39. There is NO nutrient herbal preparation that will cure cancer. 40. The best advice to prevent cancer is to eat a variety of foods, get all nutrients, and help prevent too much harmful junk getting into you. 41. RDA for calcium for adults 51 and older is 1200 mg. 42. There are 300 mg of calcium in a glass of milk (it doesn’t matter whether it is skim, whole, 1%, or 2%). 43. Common food allergies are nuts, soy, milk, and eggs. You read "Nsd 225 Study Guide" in category "Papers" 44. When under stress, the hormone cortisol produces fat. 45. A critical period during pregnancy defines a time early in pregnancy when an event happens and will never happen again. It is a certain time during development in which the event occurs that will have irreversible effects on later developmental stages (it is usually a period of cell division). 46. Colostrum contains immune factors and anti-infection that will help a baby. 47. The WIC program is a nutritional education component that takes care of people who can’t take care of themselves. 48. The major function of phosphorusit has more functions that any other mineral. 49. Advantages of infant formula = father can feed. 0. Your peak bone mass is from 25-30 years old. 51. 5 reasons girls get osteoporosis: girls live longer, guys drink more milk, girls get pregnant and breastfeed, girls are smaller (have smaller bones). 1. Iron is NOT a major mineral. 2. Females need more iron—it is almost impossible for females to eat a diet providing the RDA for iron and stay within 2000 kcal. 3. Iron deficiency anemia may be the most prevalent deficiency disease in humans. 4. PICA = eating non-food items (laundry starch, clay, ice cubes), may denote low iron intake 5. OJ would help you absorb more iron from your diet (double the absorption). . Iodide toxicity also results in goiter. 7. Copper deficiency hardly ever happens. 8. Fluoride is not essential, but is essential for teeth. 9. Chromium deficiency results in impaired glucose tolerance. 10. Sodium has a small role in high blood pressure. 11. Monosodiumglutamate (MSG) adds sodium big time. 12. The major function of iron is that it is a constituent of hemoglobin in red blood cells and myoglobin in muscle. Also, iron is essential in transportation of oxygen from lungs to tissues and it’s needed for oxidation-reduction reactions. 13. Minerals are essential, but do not provide energy (no calories). Many are needed to make body structures such as bones, needed as activators for enzyme systems, and they are poorly absorbed and can definitely be harmful if taken in excess. 14. 99% of calcium is in the bone with 1% in body fluids. 15. Dairy council said calcium may have an effect on weight loss. 16. Phyates acid in seeds, nuts, and grain decrease calcium absorption. 17. Females do not have enough calcium! 18. You MUST get enough calcium from childhood to age 25. 19. Calcium is enriched in some sources such as OJ and bread. 20. Most people don’t know what’s in the supplements they take. 1. 10 million Americans over 50 have osteoporosis, 1. 5 million have a bone fracture, 1 in 5 who have a hip fracture die. Women lose 6 inches from osteoporosis. 22. Phosphorus in excess in the diet probably does not negatively affect calcium absorption. The problem is that high carbonated beverages/soda take the place of milk intake. 23. The FDA cited over 18 manufacturers of Coral Calc ium for making false claims that the supplement is a cure-allthe U. S. Marshalls seized $26 million worth. 24. Phosphorus is an essential component of bone mineral, where it occurs in the Ca:P of 2:1. About 85% of the phosphorus in the adult body is found in bone. Phosphorus is absorbed very well by the small intestine as free phosphate. 25. Availability of phosphorus in grains, especially bran, is doubtful because of phytates in grain which will bind with phosphorus. 26. 4 functions of calcium: bone formation, response to nerves, blood clotting, normal rhythm of heartbeat. 27. Functions of phosphorus (more functions than any other mineral): absorption of glucose, transport of fatty acids, buffering system. 28. Phosphorus is very well absorbed70% 29. Functions of magnesium: bones, muscle, enzyme activator, electrical impulse. 30. Americans age 15-24 have a HIGHER death rate than 20 years ago, not nutrition related but due to violent death and injury, alcohol and drug abuse, unwanted pregnancies, STDs. 31. By 18 months, the brain growth is 90% complete and by 10 years, 95% complete, so there is no real adolescent spurt in head circumference. 32. The two major complications related to teenage pregnancy are low birth weight infants (LBW) and pre-eclampsia, which is toxemia of pregnancy characterized by hbp, albuminuria, edema of feet and legs. 33. Over 90% of adolescents snack. 34. There’s NO scientific evidence that foods such as chocolate, soft drinks, or peanut butter cause acne. 35. Peer pressure influences eating behavior. 36. Eating disorders increase among college-aged females and ballet dancers because they want to be in control. 37. Eating disorders should not be treated by amateurs—you need a team of health professionals: psychiatrist, dietitian, physician. 38. No particular nutrient of type of food can retard the aging process. 39. Buillion is clear soup—no nutritional value. 40. Stories of unusual longevity in other countries were found to be untrue. 1. Lactose intolerance = eat cheese, yogurt, or lactaid milk. 42. The elderly need to either increase calories or decrease calories, depending upon whether they are skinny or fat. 43. As you age, basal metabolic rate decreases each decade after maturity (you need less calories to stay alive, need to move more). 44. No RDA for 100 year olds, only fo r 70 and under. 45. Dehydration is the worst thing for you because you can die from it, especially athletes. 46. Infant birthweight is the single most important indicator of the infant’s future health status. A low birthweight (LBW) baby is defined as weighing less than 5. 5 lbs. 47. Risk factors for pregnancy include heavy smoking, alcohol abuse, age 15 or under, among others. 48. You need . 4 mg of folic acid/day (pregnancy). 49. Effects of nutrient deficiencies during pregnancy include: calories (low infant birthweight), vitamin D (LBW), folate (miscarriage and neural tube defect—brain and spinal cord defects) 50. During pregnancy, women should be under the care of a health professional. 51. One of the smallest increases recommended is for energy. Pregnancy requires only 300 extra kcal per day during the 2md and 3rd trimesters. 52. During pregnancy, women should select foods of high nutrient density. 53. Weight gain should be in second half of pregnancy. 54. 25-30 lbs. = total weight gain for pregnant women. 55. Practices to avoid during pregnancy: limit caffeine, stop smoking, do not take any prescribed medications, do not use street drugs, do not diet, do not drink alcohol. 56. Advantages of breast feeding: nutritionally superior to any alternative, contains a variety of anti-infectious factors and immune cells, mother’s uterus shrinks faster. 57. Colostrum: a yellow milk-like secretion from the breast, rich in protective factors that comes into the breast before milk is ready for secretion. It starts in first day or so—may be present for up to 2 weeks. 58. The infant doubles his/her birth weight in the first 3 to 4 months; triples before year one. 59. For the first four months, 1/3 of the calories are needed for growth. During 4-12 months, the baby needs 10% or less for growth and the rest for activity. 60. Start new foods one at a time so that allergies can be detected. Rice cereal is usually started first mixed with formula to make it very dilute. 1. Never feed honey to an infant since honey may contain botulina spores. 62. Don’t feed baby skim milkbabies need calories and the fat for growth. 63. Age infants should start having table food = 1 year. 64. Reducing the risk of cancer = eat cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cabbage, kale, turnips, brussel sprouts). 65. Red wine MIGHT help cancer (not sure). 66. Exe rcise when you are feeling stressedprevent cortisol from building up body fat. 67. Men eat less during stress and women eat more. 68. Mild depression or chronic stress harms immunity. 69. There is a link between stress and the urge to eat. 70. Over 75-90% of all doctor’s office visits are for stress-related ailments and complaints. 71. Water is the most important nutrient. 72. You can live 30 days without food, but only 3 days without water (except in the desertless). 73. The average adult’s body weight is from 50-60% water, most controlled by hormones. 74. There’s no RDA for water. Sources of water include most beverages except those containing alcohol and caffeine; fruits and vegetables are 75% to 96% or more water, bread is 36% water, beef is 72% water. 5. Much water is lost through the skin, which cools the skin by evaporation. 76. Weight loss of over 20% by water leads to death. 77. Water intoxication is rarely seen in healthy people. 78. High altitude = low oxygenneed more water. 79. There is low chlorine in bottled water. 80. Football players in summer practice may lose 6-8% of body weight by water. 81. Drinks with more than 10% sugar wonâ €™t get into the body as fast (Gatorade has about 10% sugar). 82. You lose water through breathing out, sweating, and through excretions. How to cite Nsd 225 Study Guide, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Swatch Group free essay sample

There are two primary reason for the success of Swatch: one is the effective marketing strategy which the company uses by satisfying its target market well; the other is high quality and various design. Due to its high quality, Swatch watch is no longer just a simple everyday watch but one of the hot collectible items in the world. Additionally, they also have series of atches for every season, every special occasion and every event in the world (Thinking made easy,2008). We will write a custom essay sample on Swatch Group or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page However, more recently the whole watches market has been driven by a number of forces, which provide both opportunities and challenges with most of watchmakers. Swatch is no exception. Intensive competition between different brands is increasing in order to survive in this changeable market. The needs and wants of individual customers vary greatly and continually, which also means the customer is still seeing something new that will urge them to continue to support the products (Thinking made easy,2008). Therefore, Swatch must continue their performance and work and continue to research about its marketing environment, adjusting its marketing strategy timely to target customers. The aim of this report is to recommend a new marketing strategy to Swatch company, which can help this company win the competition, increase the sales profit and maintain brand loyalty. According to PEST analysis, Five forces analysis and SWOT analysis, the environment where Swatch company exists could be seen clearly. Lately e-commerce is used widely and becoming more popular. Due to the credit crunch, customers switch their purchase from Luxury items to low-price items. However, persistent economic recession in the UK has an adverse impact on Swatch. Intensive competition with other companies still put heavy pressure on it. Fortunately, Swatch has already been a strong brand image in the customers’ mind and has a wider presence in the fashion market. The high-quality and unique products are also becoming its strengths. Women are the major buyer in the UK market and they purchase more for themselves than men. In terms of segmentation, targeting and positioning, the target market of Swatch is working women among the 24 to 35 age group, who are able and willing to spend more on themselves. With the tendency of high porportion of single women, and high late marriage rate, this age group will extend to benefit the company a lot. Swatch also position itself in a high-quality but low-price place to attract more customers. Combining with all of above analyses, this report recommend Swatch to adopt market- penetration strategy, which requires the company to sell current produt to its current market. Customerized product sold with high price right aims at its target customers and satisfies their tastes. Under the help of moderate implementation and control, it is evident that market penetration strategy fit for Swatch and would bring maximized profit to it. 2. 0 Introduction According to Kidd (2007, p. 1-21), the watches market has shown a consistent growth profile, with year-on-year sales rises from 2002, to reach a value of ? 1. 22 bn by 2006. However, more recently the watches market has been driven by a number of factors, whether positively or negatively. Limited growth and any downturn in the UK economy would lead to declining sales †¢ Higher spending in other areas, such as clothing, food and travel †¢ Many brands compete with each other to gain more customers, which increases the product-competitiveness and price-competitiveness †¢ Expansion in the retail distribution †¢ Reposition into the fashion market †¢ Women are the major buyers in UK market and majority of their purchases are for themselves The Swatch Group Ltd is based in Switzerland and the world’s largest watchmaker (Kidd,2007, p. 27). It owns 19 watch brands, such as Omega, Rado, Longines and launches its products over 50 locations, including France, Germany, Italy, USA, the Virgin Islands, Thailand, Malaysia, and China, with its main facility in Switzerland. Swatch is one of the brand owned by this company, who is very famous for its slim plastic watches. As it is stated that (oppapers,2006), Swatch has uniquely pioneered the low cost fashionable watch market by combining fashion, style, and Swiss technology, and it sells watches, various accessories and apparel primarily to teens and young adults n the world. To compete in such a changeable watches market and satisfy its target customers well, Swatch must perform hard. How it can differentiate its products by carrying out a perfect marketing plan to attract its customers and maintain its brand loyalty will be the key and demonstrated in this report as its final objective. The report will first analyze the external and internal marketing environment for Swatch wh ere it competes by using a range of theoretical frameworks, such as PEST, Porter’s Five Forces, and SWOT.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Same Sex Marriage Should Be Legalized

Same Sex Marriage Should Be Legalized Same Sex Marriage Should Be Legalized The debate on monogamy is often used as the counterargument to reserving the marriage rights to heterosexual couples. In other words, the advocates of gay marriage claim that most men in the heterosexual couples are not monogamous, but that faithfulness to one partner is demanded from gay couples in order to be recognized by law or the society. The debate on gay marriage rights is a fierce fight, employing all possible means and measures to prove ones point. This paper by referring to the most recent debate on gay marriage, argues that gay marriage should be given the same rights as heterosexual marriage and that the gay marriage should be legalized in the modern society. Many liberal and radical politicians today argue in favor of gay marriage or commitment ceremonies within the church so that lesbians and gay men can take part in church life. The gay rights advocates claim that the issue of allowing gay marriages is not entirely a religious one. As put by Julian Bond (2007 gay and lesbian rights are not 'special rights' in any way. It isn't 'special' to be free from discriminationit is an ordinary, universal entitlement of citizenship. In other words, the author argues that gay people should be given the same rights as heterosexual individuals who, for instance, are not excluded form the church if they commit adultery or get divorced. Yet there are many opponents of gay marriage who suggest that such strategy of allowing gay marriages to have the same rights as heterosexual unions is misguided. Various scholars state that it is essential instead to look beyond the currently popular political struggle for recognition of same-sex unions and gay families, into a landscape where the heart of sexual morality lies (Rauch 2004). Many family values campaigns have gained ground by promoting a view of the family as a haven in a heartless world. These conservatives understand that the Christian message is designed for a unit larger than one individual, that morality and faithfulness can only be achieved in a group setting (O'Brien, 2004). In their focus on the family, they appeal to those who feet isolated and detached from larger units. The family provides contemporary Americans with a tool for overcoming the crippling and lonely effects of individuality. Such campaigns tell people that they are not alone as long as they ha ve a family. Modern individuals need to work to disrupt the self-contained, isolated human subject. At the same time, advocates of gay marriages argue that if same-sex marriage is prohibited, as the eleven state referenda lost in the last election year [2004] would have it, a significant percentage of the population will continue to lose out on the 1,138 federal rights that marriage conveys (Hunt, 2005, p. 36). Each year more and more couples publicly pledge commitment. Each year more lesbians and gay men become families by producing or adopting children. The pro-family gay discourse accompanying these efforts tells one that the legalization of domestic partnership and the subsequent sanctioning of gay families is the way to end discrimination. The family has become the vehicle, Hunt (2005) claims, for gays to fit into society, to blend into the heterosexual landscape, to be accepted. As Jonathan Rauch (2004) writes, Domestic-partner and other marriage-lite arrangements, as I can't resist calling them, do not give homosexuals what they need. They also do not give society what it ne eds. Both authors agree that institution of marriage will provide gay men and women with solid psychological support, allowing them to feel as equal members of the community. At the same time, opponents of gay marriages state that, when analyzed closely, the families of gay people bring a different message into the society than their heterosexual counterparts. Where the conservative family consists of a married couple and their biological children, the gay families come in all sorts of configurations, from a committed lesbian or gay man raising a child alone, to more complicated arrangements (Musgrave, 2006). AdvocatÐ µs of thÐ µ gay marriagÐ µ havÐ µ diligÐ µntly pushÐ µd thÐ µ idÐ µa that contract, not biology, crÐ µatÐ µs parÐ µntal obligations, in part bÐ µcausÐ µ it is thÐ µ only possiblÐ µ way for samÐ µ-sÐ µx couplÐ µs to havÐ µ childrÐ µn togÐ µthÐ µr. ThÐ µ old stubborn rÐ µality that thÐ µ pÐ µoplÐ µ who makÐ µ thÐ µ baby arÐ µ his parÐ µnts must bÐ µ put asidÐ µ to accommodatÐ µ an infinitÐ µ divÐ µrsity of adult choicÐ µ. It is Ð µasy to makÐ µ a baby, but it is hard to lovÐ µ and protÐ µct and providÐ µ for childrÐ µn to adulthood. OnÐ µ important goal of statÐ µ rÐ µgulation of intimacy has bÐ µÃ µn to Ð µnsurÐ µ that childrÐ µn havÐ µ what thÐ µy nÐ µÃ µd. AdvocatÐ µs of family divÐ µrsity tÐ µll gays that it is thÐ µrÐ µforÐ µ cruÐ µl to dÐ µprivÐ µ any actual child of whatÐ µvÐ µr bÐ µnÐ µfit can bÐ µ milkÐ µd from thÐ µ statÐ µ by having thÐ µ law prÐ µfÐ µr any family form. If thÐ µ adults havÐ µ dÐ µcidÐ µd to bÐ µ parÐ µnts, thÐ µ statÐ µ should applaud and Ð µnforcÐ µ this dÐ µcision, no mattÐ µr how or who or Ð µvÐ µn how many (Ilana, 2004). Many bÐ µliÐ µvÐ µ that lÐ µgal rÐ µcognition for samÐ µ-sÐ µx couplÐ µs is positivÐ µ for thÐ µ sociÐ µty. Еxpanding lÐ µgal marriagÐ µ would bÐ µ thÐ µ most straightforward way to Ð µxtÐ µnd rÐ µcognition, but many considÐ µr morÐ µ limitÐ µd lÐ µgal rÐ µcognition in spÐ µcific contÐ µxts to bÐ µ dÐ µsirablÐ µ as wÐ µll. Many also rÐ µcognizÐ µ that thÐ µ Ð µmotional and symbolic significancÐ µ of marriagÐ µ for non-gay pÐ µoplÐ µ may provÐ µ a significant political barriÐ µr to thÐ µ kind of full marriagÐ µ rights that havÐ µ bÐ µÃ µn grantÐ µd to samÐ µ-sÐ µx partnÐ µrs in a numbÐ µr of countriÐ µs and somÐ µ statÐ µs in AmÐ µrica. At thÐ µ samÐ µ timÐ µ, thÐ µrÐ µ arÐ µ many individuals who havÐ µ arguÐ µd strongly that sÐ µxual minoritiÐ µs should not bÐ µ sÐ µÃ µking thÐ µ right to marry bÐ µcausÐ µ of thÐ µ history of marriagÐ µ as a patriarchal, confining institution inimical to human frÐ µÃ µdom an d happinÐ µss. ЕvÐ µn thosÐ µ who makÐ µ such argumÐ µnts, howÐ µvÐ µr, tÐ µnd to support morÐ µ limitÐ µd, spÐ µcific forms of lÐ µgal rÐ µcognition for samÐ µ-sÐ µx rÐ µlationships on pragmatic grounds. ThÐ µ supportÐ µrs of gay marriagÐ µ assumptions arÐ µ not all basÐ µd on Ð µmpirical Ð µvidÐ µncÐ µ dÐ µrivÐ µd from sciÐ µntific rÐ µsÐ µarch, although somÐ µ of thÐ µm may gain crÐ µdÐ µncÐ µ from thÐ µ rÐ µsults that havÐ µ bÐ µÃ µn announcÐ µd by sciÐ µntific and historical rÐ µsÐ µarchÐ µrs in rÐ µcÐ µnt yÐ µars (CarpÐ µntÐ µr, 2003). WhÐ µrÐ µ thÐ µ traditional family strivÐ µs to closÐ µ itsÐ µlf off from outsidÐ µ influÐ µncÐ µs, oftÐ µn shunning Ð µvÐ µn thÐ µ involvÐ µmÐ µnt of grandparÐ µnts or distant rÐ µlativÐ µs, gay familiÐ µs arÐ µ usually opÐ µn to thÐ µ involvÐ µmÐ µnt of many diffÐ µrÐ µnt kinds of rÐ µlationships. It is not uncommon for thÐ µ childrÐ µn of gay pÐ µoplÐ µ to havÐ µ two mommiÐ µs (a biological mothÐ µr and hÐ µr partnÐ µr), and two daddiÐ µs (a biological fathÐ µr and his partnÐ µr) and numÐ µrous aunts, unclÐ µs, and othÐ µrs who arÐ µ rÐ µlatÐ µd to thÐ µ child not by blood but by choicÐ µ. Gay families are often presented in non-traditional ways. On the one hand, the issue of gay marriage is quite a recent phenomenon. On the other hand, young gay people need some sort of psychological support and vision of the future to live and become happy. Gay marriage seems to provide them with such comfort (Bond, 2007). In conclusion, many modern progressive thinkers are deeply persuaded that the institution of marriage will save the society. The current gay pro-family agenda is clear and unambiguous: gay people refer to their civic rights that endow them with the equal treatment in the society, including the ability to marry and build a family. It is not claimed that homosexual unions are trouble-free, but gays should be treated fairly and presented with the comfort and support that traditional family settings offer.

Monday, March 2, 2020

The Ancient Sources for the History of Ancient India

The Ancient Sources for the History of Ancient India It used to be  said that the history of  India and the Indian Subcontinent  didnt begin until the Muslims invaded in the 12th century A.D. While thorough history-writing may stem from such a late date, there are earlier historical writers with 1st-hand knowledge. Unfortunately, they dont extend back in time as far as we might like or as far as in other ancient cultures. It is common knowledge that there is no corresponding equivalent on the Indian side. Ancient India has no historiography in the European sense of the word-in this respect the only historiographic civilizations of the world are the Graeco-Roman and Chinese ones...- Walter Schmitthenner, The Journal of Roman Studies When writing about a group of people who died thousands of years ago, as in ancient history, there are always gaps and guesses. History tends to be written by the victors and about the powerful. When history is not even written, as was the case in early ancient India, there are still ways to extract information- mostly archaeological, but also obscure literary texts, inscriptions in forgotten languages, and stray foreign notices, but it doesnt lend itself to straightline political history, the history of heroes and empires [Narayanan]. Although thousands of seals and inscribed artifacts have been recovered, the Indus script remains undeciphered. Unlike Egypt or Mesopotamia, this remains a civilization inaccessible to historians.... In the Indus case, while the descendents of urban dwellers and technological practices did not entirely disappear, the cities their ancestors had inhabited did. Indus script and the information it recorded also were no longer remembered.- Thomas R. Trautmann and Carla M. Sinopoli When Darius and Alexander (327 B.C.) invaded India, they provided dates around which the history of India is constructed. India did not have its own western-style historian before these incursions so reasonably reliable chronology of India dates from Alexanders invasion in the late 4th century B.C. Shifting Geographic Limits of India India originally referred to the area of the Indus River valley, which was a province of the Persian Empire. Thats how Herodotus refers to it. Later, the term India included the area bounded on the north by the Himalayas and Karakoram mountain ranges, the penetrable Hindu Kush in the northwest, and on the northeast, the hills of Assam and Cachar. The Hindu Kush soon became the border between the Mauryan empire and that of the Seleucid successor of Alexander the Great. Seleucid-controlled Bactria sat immediately to the north of the Hindu Kush. Then Bactria separated from the Seleucids  and independently invaded India. The Indus River provided a natural, but controversial border between India and Persia. It is said that Alexander conquered India, but Edward James Rapson of The Cambridge History of India Volume I: Ancient India says its only true if you mean the original sense of India the country of the Indus Valley since Alexander didnt go beyond the Beas (Hyphasis). Nearchus, an Eyewitness Source on Indian History Alexanders admiral Nearchus wrote about the Macedonian fleets travel from the Indus River to the Persian Gulf. Arrian (c. A.D. 87 - after 145) later used Nearchus works in his own writings about India. This has preserved some of Nearchus now lost material. Arrian says Alexander founded a city where the Hydaspes battle was fought, which was named Nikaia, as the Greek word for victory. Arrian says he also founded the more famous city of Boukephala, to honor his horse, also by the Hydaspes. The location of these cities is not clear and there is no corroborative numismatic evidence. [Source: The Hellenistic Settlements in the East From Armenia and Mesopotamia to Bactria and India, by Getzel M. Cohen, University of California Press: 2013.) Arrians report says that Alexander was told by inhabitants of Gedrosia (Baluchistan) about others who had used that same travel route. The legendary Semiramis, they said, had fled through that route from India with only 20 members of her army and Cambyses son Cyrus returned with only 7 [Rapson]. Megasthenes, an Eyewitness Source on Indian History Megasthenes, who stayed in India from 317 to 312 B.C. and served as ambassador of Seleucus I at the court of Chandragupta Maurya (referred to in the Greek as Sandrokottos), is another Greek source about India. He is quoted in Arrian and Strabo, where the Indians denied having engaged in foreign warfare with any but Hercules, Dionysus and the Macedonians (Alexander). Of the westerners who might have invaded India, Megasthenes says Semiramis died before invading and the Persians acquired mercenary troops from India [Rapson]. Whether or not Cyrus invaded northern India depends on where the border is or was set; however, Darius seems to have gone as far as the Indus. Native Indian Sources on Indian History Soon after the Macedonians, the Indians themselves produced artifacts that help us with the history. Particularly important are the stone pillars of the Mauryan king Ahsoka (c. 272- 235 B.C.) which provide the first glimpse of an authentic historical Indian figure. Another Indian source on the Mauryan dynasty is the Arthashastra of Kautilya. Although the author is sometimes identified as Chandragupta Mauryas minister Chanakya, Sinopoli and Trautmann say the Arthashastra was probably written in the second century A.D. Sources The Hour-Glass of India C. H. Buck, The Geographical Journal, Vol. 45, No. 3 (Mar., 1915), pp. 233-237Historical Perspectives on Ancient India, M. G. S. Narayanan, Social Scientist, Vol. 4, No. 3 (Oct., 1975), pp. 3-11Alexander and India A. K. Narain ,  Greece Rome, Second Series, Vol. 12, No. 2, Alexander the Great (Oct., 1965), pp. 155-165The Cambridge History of India Volume I: Ancient India  By Edward James Rapson, The Macmillan CompanyIn the Beginning Was the Word: Excavating the Relations between History and Archaeology in South Asia Thomas R. Trautmann and Carla M. Sinopoli​,  Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 45, No. 4, Excavating the Relations between Archaeology and History in the Study of Pre-Modern Asia [Part 1] (2002), pp. 492-523Two Notes on Seleucid History: 1. Seleucus 500 Elephants, 2. Tarmita W. W. Tarn​,  The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 60 (1940), pp. 84-94

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Accomplishing Life Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Accomplishing Life - Essay Example Most of the time all we had was each other and that is why I surprised my family when I told them that I was going to join the army. My brothers and I did not have any money to go to college when we graduated, plus I didn’t want to go to college right away. I graduated in 2005 and a year later I joined the United States Army. At the time I didn’t feel like I had accomplished anything so far even though i did ok in school. I played sports and was part of school activities but still had certain goals I wanted to reach and I knew I had to start somewhere. I wanted to get away from home and see what was out in the real world for me. Army was the way to go, and then maybe I could start accomplishing my life goals. The journey for my army accomplishment started in June 2006 when i was sent off to Fort Jackson, SC for basic training. It was 9 weeks of physical and mental training and a lot of people telling you what to do all the time. There were four platoons that consisted of 50-60 people. The four platoons made one company. I was in fourth platoon, which was one of the greatest platoons you wanted to be in. I started meeting a lot of great people and did a lot of team building. We ran miles and miles; ruck marched through woods and sand, which was hard when you carried 30lbs on your back- holding a weapon. We learned about many different weapons and how to shoot them.